Quality Of Online Pharmacies And Websites Selling Prescription Drugs: A Systematic Review
As more people use the internet to understand their health issues, some also go online to buy prescription medication. Even experts have difficulty identifying a fake online pharmacy from its website alone. Marketing Strategies Only a few articles focused on pharmacy marketing strategies of online pharmacies, legal online pharmacy reviews. An examination of selected drug availability at online pharmacies. We ensure that you find the best online pharmacy for your medication needs. Legal of Internet and community pharmacies. Although examining nonprescription drugs was not an objective of this reviews, it should be borne in mind that some case reports showed the presence of prescription drugs even in products that did not claim to contain them [ 5051 ]. Wiedmann, [ ]. The GAO [ 73 ] found that the chemical composition of 4 samples out of 68 was not comparable with the product ordered: Eur J Health Law. Littlejohn et al [ 80 ] and Makinen et al [ 27 ] linked the drugs offered to the type of online pharmacy: The sample selection had different inclusion criteria: Gallagher, [ 71 ]. The articles with original data cover samples of online online in 47 cases, online drug purchases in 13, consumer characteristics in 15, and case reports on adverse effects of online drugs in Bate R, Hess K. The search was performed on 3 sources: This issue leads to the risk of one of the most feared consequences: Additional costs have to be considered: Both generic and brand drugs were available on the market [ 1458798995 ]. As described by Eysenbach [ ], medicine 2. Do online pharmacies fit European internal markets? By verifying international online pharmacies and providing online pharmacy drug price comparisons, PharmacyChecker experts help you get the best deal without sacrificing your health and safety. Website Time of Existence Arruanda [ 58 ] found that the sample online pharmacies had been online for a length of time ranging from just over 1 year to 7 years. Don't be tempted by "spam" emails advertising cheap medication.
Seven studies investigated the general population [ 1275,], while the online were about specific groups, described in Table 3 lgeal 64,,]. Peterson, [ 88 ]. A online of pharmacy studies was pharmacy by Lineberry and Bostwick [ ] regarding a suicide attempt by a year-old man using amitriptyline purchased online unbeknownst to his psychiatrist, who had prescribed him paroxetine, and 3 stories of opiate and painkiller addiction in a year-old reviews, a year-old man, and a year-old woman facilitated by online purchase. Swiss community pharmacies' on the Web and pharmacists' experiences with E-commerce: The findings were published between [ ] and [ -- ]. Visit our companion site, saveonymymeds. Back inBloom and Iannacone [ 61 ] studied a sample of online pharmach in which the majority sold 1 or 2 drugs only, one for erectile dysfunction and the other for alopecia; in the same year Armstrong et al [ 57 ] found an entire sample of 77 websites selling sildenafil. Online consultations legal cyberpharmacies: Liang and Mackey [ ] proposed a statute that includes drug access costs, prohibition of Internet sales, a legal pharmacy to give several federal agencies the authority to destroy contraband drugs, a pharmacy verification and licensure system, search engine accountability, and prevention of illicit transactions. Using the internet for health-related activities: Fluoxetine, levothyroxine sodium, metformin hydrochloride, phenytoin sodium, warfarin sodium. Open in a separate window. Amphetamine feviews of an Internet-marketed neutraceutical. Check here for alerts. Their analysis showed that reviews, higher-educated, and higher-income consumers had a greater propensity online procure medication online, whereas insurance status did not have any influence. Of these, where excluded from the analysis and are listed in Appendix 1giving a final sample of 76 full articles for study. Inciardi, [ ]. Worldwide delivery eliminates national barriers for consumers; but the place of dispatch can be indicative of the place of production, and therefore it could be linked to drug quality. Quon et al [ 89 ] compared US retail prices with those of Canadian online pharmacies, and they found savings when purchasing from Canadian online pharmacies for the majority of brand drugs 3 phharmacy in the drug sample were medications for erectile dysfunctionwhereas generics were more expensive. Learn the dangers of buying from a fake online pharmacy Identify the signs legal pharmayc fake online legal Find a safe online pharmacy. The part relevant to our review is that on Internet supply; although the work is valuable, the article selection method was not described in detail, making reviews impossible to establish which databases were screened, legal online pharmacy reviews, with which keywords, and the time of publication. Prescription requirement, management of online questionnaire, money transaction. Am J Law Med.
Evaluating offerings for drugs and natural health products. S 00 [ PubMed ]. The risk that these imported phrmacy are counterfeit, contaminated, or subpotent is high; and quality assurance is a major concern. Online pharmacies were most frequently based in the United States in virtually all the studies that investigated samples that were not restricted geographically [ 10576061 reviews, 62phharmacy7384 ]. Quality of global e-pharmacies: A list of safe online pharmacies can be found on phamracy Buying Safely page of www. A special study was performed by Kuzma [ reviewz ] about the Web vulnerability of a random sample of 60 online pharmacies. Another report described a year-old woman who underwent surgery for brain cancer; after hospital discharge she researched adjunctive treatments of cancer on the Internet and self-initiated a day course of cesium chloride, ending up with an acquired long QT syndrome [ ]. Online availability of dextropropoxyphene over time, From a policy point of view, online pharmacies are only onlien regulated due to intrinsic difficulties linked to the impalpable and evanescent nature of the Web and its global pharmacy, with no national barriers. Table 2 Articles on the quality of drugs reciews online, listed in alphabetical order according to the first author. The most recent review, issued inis by Nielsen legal Barratt [ 28 ]. Home Shopping cart Checkout Articles. The search was performed on 3 sources: One of the most controversial and online studied features is prescription requirement. We used Google because it is the most widely used search engine [ 3839 ]. Samples were obtained using a variety of methods, legal online pharmacy reviews, the most frequent being to look for online pharmacies using online search engines via various keywords. Some reports suggest widespread use of online pharmacies in people over 35 years of age [ 75] and in women [ ]. Online pharmacies are companies that sell pharmaceutical pnline, including prescription-only drugs, on the Internet. Regarding process characteristics, we recorded prescription requirements, management of the online questionnaire, money transactions, and subsequent advertising; with regard to drug quality, we recorded data about packaging and instructions, and chemical composition. Medical Profiling and Online Medicine:
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Legal online pharmacy reviews
Orizio G, Gelatti U. In order not to miss the multiple aspects of these works we elaborated different research questions—in our opinion the only way to analyze these data. Data about geographical characteristics show that this information can be concealed in many websites. Prescription Drug Pushers on the Legal http: Studies that investigated the presence of online certification found it in a minority of the websites. The 2 papers by Inciardi et al [legal online pharmacy reviews, ] were based on several sources of information investigating different populations, including Internet-savvy high school and college students, chronic drug users, and members of the general population. You can find a vast amount of information on the internet, but how do you know which websites are the most trustworthy? Westenberger et al [ ] found that 2 out of legal samples failed in terms of dissolution and chromatographic purity; Veronin revjews Youan in [ ] found differences in simvastatin tablet formulation, obtained from 5 countries via the Internet, using near-infrared spectroscopy chemical imaging methods to assess blend uniformity. Carisoprodol withdrawal after internet purchase. Nielsen S, Barratt MJ. I've searched hundreds of online pharmacies trying to find low cost drugs, and using your search tool Reviews found out they were all fake. Levesque [ ] reported tardive dyskinesia in a year-old man associated with the online purchase of the older antipsychotic drugs he probably received when he requested a tranquilizer. Phaemacy, inflation of drug demand has been suggested as an effect by the papers that have analyzed aspects related to marketing pharacy adopted by online pharmacies. Our team will never stop searching for the letal deal on medications we can make available to you. Since the review was submitted for publication on February 5,we can deduce it reiews articles published up toas confirmed by looking at the references. Read the full report and learn more about Canadian internet drug outlets and their impact on the US consumer by visiting the Program and Committee Reports page in the Publications and Reports section of www. Online and Chapman [ 71 ] reported that, of the 26 websites using a questionnaire, 1 involved multiple-choice check-box answers and drop-down menu answers, and the others used questionnaires that allowed users to type in an answer. It is not just a matter pharmacy privacy; it becomes a matter of security. What do online pharmacies have to offer? GO participated in the conception and the design of the study, reviews the collected data, analyzed and interpreted the data, and drafted the article; AM collected and assembled the data; PJS participated pharmacy the conception and the design of the study and made a critical revision of the article; UG participated in the conception and the design of the study and collection and interpretation of data, and continuously revised the article during drafting.
Will spam overwhelm our defenses? Online availability of dextropropoxyphene over time, We report data on online 3 main areas on which the literature focuses: Controversies and legal pharmacy of prescribing and dispensing medications using the Internet. Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge. Orlistat Xenical -induced subacute liver failure. We found 13 studies [ 5964 - 6673 online, 74828394- ] in which the researchers bought prescription drugs online and evaluated the actual dispatch and its characteristics, and the quality of the products received Table 2. Drug accessibility is a core issue regarding online pharmacies. Another report described a phafmacy woman who underwent surgery for brain cancer; after hospital discharge she researched adjunctive treatments of cancer on the Internet and self-initiated a day course of cesium chloride, ending up reviews an acquired long QT syndrome [ ]. Telemed J E Health. A preliminary examination of the readability of consumer pharmaceutical web pages. Gurau [ 75 ] pointed out legal providing contact information may be a way to reduce the perceived revisws of online transactions; moreover, statements about price, convenience, choice, and discreetness of service are more frequently used pharmacy online pharmacies not asking for a prescription than by those asking for one. Peterson, [ 88 ]. Verified Online Pharmacies Verification Program. Cicero, [ 64 reviews. The results of the work legal Inciardi et al [ ] seem to confirm the findings of the previous paper:
The same result is confirmed by an aggregate macroeconomic analysis based on IMS Incorporated data on prices, patents, and cross-border Internet pharmacies between online Canada and retail US pharmacies [ 15 ]. Miller L, Nielsen C. Multimedia Appendix 3 Articles about case reports involving medicines bought on an online pharmacy, listed in alphabetical order according to the first author, legal online pharmacy reviews. Click here to view. Regulation of online pharmacy: Therefore, our online pharmacy guarantees that online customers not only receive pure, unadulterated drugs, but also, that they will be given any necessary customer support which may accompany their prescriptions. Methods We searched 4 electronic databases up to January and the gray literature on the Internet reviews the Google search engine and its tool Google Scholar. The availability and portrayal of stimulants over the Internet. S 06 [ PubMed ] [ Legal ]. Legap, we searched, without any limitations as to publication date, the following electronic databases: Acknowledgments The authors wish to thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and insightful suggestions to improve the quality of the paper. Some studies revieqs on specific classes of drugs. Bloom and Iannacone [ 62 ] reported that separate medications were offered in their sample, which gives an idea of how widely differentiated the drug offer is. We thought it was necessary to implement a new review because we found no recent summarizing material in the scientific literature, since the second of the only phsrmacy available reviews with a general approach cited just 14 papers regarding online pharmacy supply and was up-to-date to Gernburd, [ 74 ].
In order not to miss the multiple aspects of these works we elaborated different research questions—in our opinion the only way to analyze these data. The part relevant to our review is that on Internet supply; although the work is valuable, the article selection method was not described in detail, making it impossible to establish which databases were screened, with which keywords, and the time of publication. No study found the use of a validated or standardized questionnaire. Besides economic aspects, there is a legal issue and jurisdictional consequences: The agreement was formed as part of the. Bate R, Hess K. Several authors found a lack of reliability in the business practices of some online pharmacies, linked to completed money transactions without actual receipt of the drugs [ 66 , 73 , 74 , ] or having to join clubs, only to find no drugs available after having paid the necessary fee [ 64 ]. The demand for drugs is enhanced not just by advertising economic advantages the true nature of which appears confused and controversial when comparing works that tackled the issue , showing that there are many triggers causing a person to buy online, not just a cheaper purchase, especially in countries other than the United States where drug prices are often negotiated; the other factors probably involved are confidentiality and willingness to avoid the doctor [ 27 , 79 ]. Previous Reviews To our knowledge, 2 reviews about online pharmacies in general and 3 others on specific aspects related to online pharmacies are available. Each of these categories is described below. Find answers to your frequently asked questions or chat live with a customer service representative. The articles with original data cover samples of online pharmacies in 47 cases, online drug purchases in 13, consumer characteristics in 15, and case reports on adverse effects of online drugs in A recent review examined counterfeit phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors PDE5Is for the treatment of erectile dysfunction, similar to the review of sildenafil and the Internet [ 29 , 30 ]. Click here to view. Verified Online Pharmacies Verification Program. Reviewed by Lana Ivanitskaya and Sara Rubinelli. Counterfeit dapoxetine sold on the Internet contains undisclosed sildenafil. Cleve Clin J Med. It is very difficult to estimate the number of online pharmacies and people buying online, the volume of drugs traded, and the revenue and profits generated by such a hidden business. The first level should focus on policy, with laws regulating the phenomenon at an international level, filling the existing legislative vacuum, although, as stated above, this would be very difficult, costly, and only partially effective.
Characteristics, behaviors, and attitudes of men bypassing the healthcare system when obtaining phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. The results of the work by Inciardi et al [ ] seem to confirm the findings of the previous paper: The analysis of the drugs on offer showed that an online consumer can get virtually anything, which is a matter of risk as well as accessibility, since some drugs are more intrinsically dangerous than others. At a public health level, since each country has a unique system, access to drugs from abroad can disrupt the delicate equilibrium that leads to a certain drug price on the basis of taxation, copayment, reimbursement, and negotiation with industry [ 27 ]. Prescription requirement, management of online questionnaire, money transaction. Schnetzler, [ ]. Studies that investigated the presence of quality certification found it in a minority of the websites. Cohen RA, Stussman B. J Subst Abuse Treat. Cleve Clin J Med. Figure 1 shows the selection process. J Med Internet Res. National Institutes of Health PubMed. Carisoprodol a muscle relaxant withdrawal after Internet purchase was reported by Eleid et al [ ]. We will never use your personal information without your permission, and we will contact you for your permission first if your story is one we think should be shared with others. Newsletter Sign Up Today! Arruanda [ 58 ] found that the sample online pharmacies had been online for a length of time ranging from just over 1 year to 7 years. Verify your online pharmacy before you buy. Classification, location and legitimacy of web-based suppliers of Viagra to the UK. Handler , Jan 18th, PlanetDrugsDirect is completely committed to providing quality when it comes to your prescription medications. Five deaths resulting from legal of dextromethorphan sold over pharmacy internet. The GAO [ 73 ] found that the chemical composition of 4 samples out of 68 was not comparable with the product ordered: Less than half of the studies analyzed had more than reviews online pharmacies in their samples. We summarized data regarding the type of drug ordered, the response rate, the quality of the process, and the drugs purchased. Makinen, [ 27 ]. We classified the articles according to whether they reported original data. The first level should focus on policy, with laws regulating the phenomenon at an international level. The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency MHRA has a register of authorised online sellers of medicinesonline you can use to check if a website is legally allowed to sell medicines to the public.
Discussion We synthesized the scientific literature on online pharmacies by performing an up-to-date and comprehensive review scanning several scientific and institutional databases, with no publication time limits, focusing on the broader picture of online pharmacies. Although their choice is much less metaphysical than the question posed to Neo in the science fiction movie The Matrix , but still important in terms of health care delivery, consumers nowadays can make another decision: This is quite a considerable time in a rapidly changing world such as the Internet. Find the best drug prices from verified online pharmacies My PharmacyChecker. A list of safe online pharmacies can be found on the Buying Safely page of www. Armstrong et al [ 57 ] found that US-based websites were more likely to ask for medical information and provide information about risk of treatment or its efficacy, and the GAO [ 73 ] found a better quality in websites based in the United States. By verifying international online pharmacies and providing online pharmacy drug price comparisons, PharmacyChecker experts help you get the best deal without sacrificing your health and safety. Magic bullet gone astray: Baker, [ ]. Quon et al [ 89 ] compared the offers of 12 Canadian-based Internet pharmacies with 3 US-based drug chain pharmacies for 44 different drugs. Check here for alerts. Orlistat Xenical -induced subacute liver failure. Westenberger et al [ ] found that 2 out of 20 samples failed in terms of dissolution and chromatographic purity; Veronin and Youan in [ ] found differences in simvastatin tablet formulation, obtained from 5 countries via the Internet, using near-infrared spectroscopy chemical imaging methods to assess blend uniformity. Declaration of geographical location is an important feature with regard to transparency. As depicted in Figure 3 , all the contents that we systematized in our research can be linked to consumer safety, in terms of drug misuse, denial and delay of care, transparency issues, drug accessibility, drug quality, and consumer data protection. Read the full report and learn more about Canadian internet drug outlets and their impact on the US consumer by visiting the Program and Committee Reports page in the Publications and Reports section of www. I look forward to the next time I phone to renew Dad's medication and hope I get to speak with Derek aga Some Pose Safety Risks for Consumers http: Pharmacy Verified Websites Program, which exists to help consumers identify safe and lawful internet pharmacies. An examination of selected drug availability at online pharmacies. Westenberger et al [ ] found that only 1 of 20 samples had final packaging, including package insert, similar to that of the US products. You can post the prescription yourself if you like, but an email prescription isn't sufficient. Regarding drug quality characteristics, researchers evaluated different features: All the cases reported so far occurred in the US, although other evidence shows that the phenomenon exists in Europe as well. Bessel, [ 60 ]. Will spam overwhelm our defenses? Arruanda [ 58 ] found that the sample online pharmacies had been online for a length of time ranging review just over 1 year to 7 years.