Over-the-counter Drug

A total of 53 publications were identified, including 25 empirical studies, 11 case reports, 11 reviews articles, 1 book chapter, 1 doctoral thesis, 1 parliamentary enquiry and 3 key publications from organisations. Be careful when giving medicines to children. OTC medicine sales data were identified overthedounter.com two reviews. Data relating to the United States have been reported from a overthecounter.com of sources, overthecounter.com, ranging from specifically collected national level data, to surveys of specific groups, such as gym users, nicotine gum users and high school students. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. Pharma Technology Focus No clients were recruited to enable collection of quality of life data. Public and pharmacy customers in five US states in approached via adverts. The author alone is responsible for the content and writing of this paper. Published online Oct 3. The birth of the e-clinic. Retrieved 3 February Hypokalaemia secondary to renal acidosis was identified as a result of abuse of this combination product Chetty et al. Extent and pattern of misuse overthecountee.com over period — Male customers were perceived more likely to abuse or misuse OTC medicines in all categories except laxatives and the 20—40 age range was most commonly identified, overthecounter.com. Overthecounter.com on the management of spoiled identity. In many countries, a number of OTC drugs are available in establishments without a pharmacysuch as general overthecounter.com, supermarkets, and gas stations. With a specific focus on analgesic use, Agaba et al. Dependence and other adverse effects. This review describes the current knowledge and overthecounter.com of Oerthecounter.com medicine abuse. These represent urgent areas where research is needed; to explore the extent of the problem and to provide insights into those affected, coupled wih providing clarification of the type of problem being investigated.

This revealed that for 0. Patient Education and Counseling. More than half overthecounter.com An inquiry into physical dependence and addiction to prescription and over-the-counter medication. Overthecounter.com clear patterns relating to those affected or their experiences were identified and they may represent a hard-to-reach group, which coupled with heterogeneous data, makes estimating the scale of abuse problematic, overthecounter.com. If you don't understand the instructions, ask your pharmacist or health care overthecounter.com. Most frequently identified were painkillers, sleep aids and cough medicines. Consumption and its discontents: Observational case series; semi-structured interview. As Lessenger and Feinberg noted, there is a relative lack of literature relating to OTC medicines that may be abused, and only one previous review has been undertaken Reed et al. Survey informed by unreported qualitative study. Drugs Pharmaceuticals policy Drug safety, overthecounter.com. Current controls are ineffective. American Psychiatric Association; Background The mechanisms by which individuals can obtain medicines include not only their traditional prescribing by doctors, but also the ability to purchase medicines directly. Make sure that you give your child the correct dose. Second, overthecounter.com were physiological harms related to the adverse effects of another active ingredient in a compound formulation. The situation in Jordan was studied by Albsoul-Younes et al. To assess the attitudes of GPs regarding the appropriateness of OTC medication use by their patients. To obtain information from Palestinian community overthecounter.com about perceptions of OTC medicine abuse, suspected customer types and solutions. Comprehensive search of international empirical and review literature between and There was no mention in the literature of the transition between misuse and abuse, as has been recognised in the medical prescribing situation of involuntary addiction Reay, The impact of increased access. No abuse identified for dextromethorphan, one case for pseudoephedrine, and none for antihistamines. OTC medicine abuse is a recognised problem internationally but is currently incompletely understood.

All 60 pharmacies in Northumberland, England in Furthermore, some Schedule V controlled substances may overthecounter.com classified as OTC products in certain states. Published online Oct 3. Review strategy A thematic literature review approach was overthecounter.com, since there were a range of questions identified which a systematic review would have overthecounter.com inappropriate for, overthecounter.com, and also because including both review and empirical literature was considered advantageous in mapping out the breadth of understanding in overthecounter.com area. Pain, physical dependence and pseudoaddiction: A total of 53 publications were identified, including 25 empirical studies, 11 case reports, 11 reviews articles, 1 book chapter, 1 doctoral thesis, 1 parliamentary enquiry and 3 key publications from organisations. Data indicated that The impact of increased access. Barriers included staff changes, time pressures, gaining full cooperation, lack of deterrence to those addicted and industry factors. OTC medicines represented 1. If it is not appropriate to sell a 'P' medication — i. Misuse of over-the-counter cough or cold medications among adolescents: Strategies and interventions included limiting supplies, raising public and professional awareness and using existing services and Internet support groups, although associated evaluations were lacking, overthecounter.com. Characteristics of primary prescription and OTC treatment admissions: Overall, there was no consensus as to who may be affected by OTC medicine abuse. As a general rule, over-the-counter drugs overthecounter.com to be used primarily to treat a condition that does not require the direct supervision of a doctor and must be proven to be reasonably safe and well tolerated. This appeared to be associated with variation in the availability of products, such as codeine-based analgesic or cough medicines in several countries but not in the United States, for example; specific trends, such as adolescent dextromethorphan abuse in the United States; and variation in regulation, such as availability of prescription medicines for purchase in some countries. Two-stage random sampled using residents of Zawan B ward district of Jos, Nigeria. Over-the-counter OTC drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, [1] as opposed to prescription overthecounter.comwhich may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription. With a specific focus on analgesic use, Agaba et al. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This review of the literature has revealed a number of themes and data to inform understanding of OTC medicine abuse, However, what is perhaps most apparent is the extent of the omissions in the extant literature, particularly as they relate to the lack of:. These included removing products overthecounter.com sight, claiming products were not in stock or not stocked anymore, alerting or counselling customers to the abuse potential of products, refusing sales, suggesting customers contact their doctor and supplying only limited amounts.

Several UK studies have explored the experiences and perceptions of pharmacists overthecounter.com relation to OTC medicine misuse and abuse and estimates of the extent of the problem were presented overthecounter.com a result. Abuse and misuse of prescription and nonprescription drugs sold in community pharmacies in Jordan. They identified similar clinical presentations as noted above and one death. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry. Also involving Scottish pharmacists and a postal survey, MacFadyen et al. Abuse is overhecounter.com non-medical use of OTC drugs, e. Over-the-counter OTC medicines are drugs you can buy without a prescription. Stratified random sample of GPs in Northern Ireland. Depressive effect and violent behaviour were positively associated with OTC misuse, and Native American youths reported the highest level of OTC misuse, with African Americans reporting the overthecounteg.com. Medication falls into one of three categories: Steinman focused on the adolescent US population and surveyed 39, high school students in one county and reported 4. Over time, overthecounter.com, often 3—6 years, drugs that prove themselves safe and appropriate as prescription medicines may be switched from prescription to OTC. However, such data are not unproblematic and in the case of some US data, for example, prescription and OTC medicines were often overthecounter.com together, overthecounter.com. Drug misuse and community overthecounter.com. For example, overthecounter.com, many drugstores have moved products overthecounter.com pseudoephedrinean OTC product, into locations where customers must ask a pharmacist for them. Since the passage of the Illinois Methamphetamine Precursor Control Act and the subsequent federal Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act ofthe purchase of pseudoephedrine is restricted. Consensus reached in key areas such as improving staff training, access to information, and concerns about non-pharmacy and Internet supplies and commercial pressure. Reference lists of included publications were also checked and further searching was undertaken as a overthecounter.clm. A drug that is UAD can also be sold at drugstores, stores where no prescription can be filed and there is only a relatively small selection of popular drugs like painkillers and cough medicine. Consumer habits and interests regarding non-prescription medications in Hungary. Participants viewed OTC medicines as different to other drugs, and overtheconuter.com as different from other drug users.

Overthecounter.com

Nytol remained commonest product overthecounter.com was cited by around half of all pharmacists, then Feminax and Kaolin and morphine. Stratified random sample of GPs in Northern Ireland. Beliefs and social norms about codeine and promethazine hydrochloride cough syrup CPHCS use and addiction among multi-ethnic college students. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration decides whether a medicine is safe and effective enough to sell over-the-counter, overthecounter.com. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Learn More Related Issues Specifics. Summary of empirical studies. Steinman reported that female students misused OTC medicines more than males, and misuse was also higher amongst older white students and Native American youths. An emerging cause of perforated gastric ulcer. If they ask for a specific product, the pharmacy assistant must ask "Who is it for," "How long ogerthecounter.com you had the symptoms," "Are you allergic to any medication," "Are you taking any medication" 'WHAM' questions. In relation to harms from other ingredients, two analgesic combination products — paracetamol and codeine co-codamol and ibuprofen and codeine — were considered problematic, with ibuprofen-containing medicine being particularly highlighted Chetty et al. More information about medicines was suggested as being needed, overthecounter.com. Prescription and OTC medicines accounted for 3. Overthecounter.com is addicted to OTC medicines? Overthecohnter.com Journal of Australia. A pilot study to investigate over-the-counter drug abuse and misuse in Palestine. Ford and Good noted the side effects relating to ibuprofen and Dutch reported both patients having perforated gastric ovsrthecounter.com. This review describes the current knowledge and understanding of OTC medicine abuse. The earliest identified study was conducted in Definitions and terminology Considerable overthecounter.com variation was apparent in the identified literature. Cross-sectional community survey using structured face-to-face interview. For example, people with high blood pressure should not take certain decongestants. The various definitions described previously have a number of implications for research overthecounter.com understanding in this area. Episodes recorded by a poison center.

Geographical variation was evident and different products were subject to abuse in different countries. As in the above national-level study, the Californian study found OTC medicines to be relatively low, representing only 1. This study also estimated that a mean of 5. Dependence and other adverse effects. An ill-defined third category of substances is products having over-the-counter status from the FDA while being simultaneously subject to other restrictions on sale. No abuse identified for dextromethorphan, one case for pseudoephedrine, and none for antihistamines. World Health Organisation; A similar regulation applies to some forms of emergency contraception. If you are pregnant, check with your health care provider before taking any medicine. Misuse of and dependence on over-the-counter nicotine gum in a volunteer sample. On-line survey of codeine users, qualitative interviews with codeine-dependent people and key experts. A number of specific OTC medicines and therapeutic groups have been implicated and in a recent review for doctors, for example, Lessenger and Feinberg suggested medicines such as stimulants, laxatives, sedatives and dissociative substances such as dextromethorphan as being liable to abuse. Use and overthecounter.com of over-the-counter analgesic agents, overthecounter.com. No statistical link to pharmacy location and extent of OTC problem. Also involving Scottish pharmacists and a postal survey, MacFadyen et al. A more recent study from the United States also used drug treatment admissions Gonzales et al. Evaluation of abuse and dependence on drugs used for self-medication: Severe hypokalaemia and weakness due to Nurofen misuse. Improved coordination and communication essential to implementation. Discussion This review of the literature has revealed a number of themes and data to inform understanding of OTC medicine abuse, However, what is perhaps most apparent is the extent of the omissions in the extant literature, particularly as they relate to the lack of: Over the counter codeine dependence final report Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine. All 46 eligible patients identified from the total of opioid abusers participated.

No [POM], [P] or [GSL] products that are stocked in a pharmacy can be sold, dispensed, or pre-made until a responsible pharmacist is signed in and on the premises. Some prevent or cure diseases, like tooth decay and athlete's foot. This review of the literature has revealed a number of themes and data to inform understanding of OTC medicine abuse, However, what is perhaps most apparent is the extent of the omissions in the extant literature, particularly as they relate to the lack of:. Some medication available in supermarkets and petrol stations is sold only in smaller packet sizes. To examine treatment admission patterns to addiction system for overthecounter.com abuse of prescription and OTC drugs, differentiating between adolescents and adults. The labels comply to a standard format and are intended to be easy for typical consumers to understand. Over-the-Counter Medicines -- see more articles. Comprehensive search of international empirical and review literature between and Adopting such methods may reveal further insights that could help understanding of the contested definitional issues overthecounter.com above, as well as providing more than the proxy summaries of those perceived to be affected, as offered by some pharmacist-participant studies. Others studies identified no difference Hughes et al. Postal questionnaire no details overthecounter.com. Participants viewed OTC medicines as different to other drugs, and themselves as different from other drug users. National estimates of drug-related emergency department visits, overthecounter.com. Drugs Pharmaceuticals policy Drug safety. It is somewhat unusual for an OTC drug to be withdrawn from the market as a result of safety concerns, rather than market forces, though it does happen occasionally. Some states may have more stringent requirements such as Oregonwhere a medical prescription is required to purchase any quantity of pseudoephedrine. The situation in Jordan was studied by Albsoul-Younes et al. The drug can be on the shelves like any other product. In relation to policy, this review confirms that there is a problem in a number of countries but concerns about what is being investigated — whether this is misuse, overthecounter.com, dependency, addiction or pseudo-addiction — coupled with a lack of systematic data on the scale of the problem make appropriate and proportionate policy-based interventions difficult to consider. Data indicated that Over-the-Counter Medicines Also called: Drug abuse warning network, More information about medicines was suggested as being needed.

OTC purchases were cited by The mechanisms by which individuals can obtain medicines include not only their traditional prescribing by doctors, but also the ability to purchase overthecpunter.com directly. Prescription and over-the-counter drug treatment admissions to the California public treatment system. American Psychiatric Association; This review of overthwcounter.com literature relating to OTC medicine abuse has revealed that there is a recognised problem overthecointer.com involving a range of medicine and potential harms. For example, phenylpropanolamine was removed from sale in the United States over concern regarding strokes in young women. Tinsley and Watkins reported on seven patients with dependence according to DSM-IV criteria for amphetamine-like abuse to ephedrine or pseudoephedrine and reported adverse social consequences in relation to losing jobs, overthecounter.com, family-marital stresses, relapse into alcohol misuse, motor vehicle overthecounter.com and accidents. Cross-sectional postal survey, 2 reminders and 1 follow-up survey sent in Over-the-counter and prescription medicine misuse in Cape Town — Findings from specialist treatment centres. A more recent study from the United States also used drug treatment admissions Gonzales et al. These represent urgent areas where research is overthecounter.co to explore the extent of the problem and to provide insights into those affected, overthecouner.com wih providing clarification of the type of problem being investigated. Lack of pharmacist confidence and general practitioner GP engagement and competing work demands were identified as barriers. Drug Facts ovrthecounter.com overthecounter.com information on the product's active ingredient sindications and purpose, safety warnings, directions for use, and inactive ingredients. A series of 27 cases. Issues for pharmaceutical care. In terms of agency, it is interesting to overthecounter.com on the distinction between misuse and abuse in some of the extant literature, since this appears to recognise a difference between intentionally experimenting with a medicine to elicit a different effect and abusing it, overthecounter.com, and unintentionally deviating from standard use taking at different dose or indication and therefore misusing it. An emerging cause overthecountfr.com perforated gastric overtyecounter.com. Articles with short description All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from February Wikipedia articles with NDL identifiers. Two cross-sectional postal surveys in and A number of specific OTC medicines and therapeutic overthecounter.com have been implicated and in a recent review for doctors, for example, Lessenger and Feinberg suggested medicines such as stimulants, laxatives, sedatives and dissociative substances such as dextromethorphan as being liable to abuse.

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Journal of the American Board of Family Overthecounetr.com. Over-the-counter OTC medicines are drugs you can buy without a prescription. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry. OTC medicines represented 1. Random sample of pharmacies in Jordan. A population survey of Overthecounger.com pharmacies. Male customers were perceived more likely to abuse or misuse OTC medicines overthecounter.com all categories except laxatives and the 20—40 age range was most commonly identified. This allows overthecpunter.com to take a more active role in your health overthecounter.com. The authors identified methodological concerns about the recording of such data, noting that OTC and prescription medicine recording by treatment staff was inconsistent, and may be due to not only the overthecountwr.com recent inclusion of such data but also two further factors:. Scale of OTC medicine abuse Attempts to describe the extent of OTC medicine abuse have been made using a variety of methods and data sources, which were often geographically related, but reflected heterogeneous participant overthecountee.com and data. Most frequently identified were painkillers, sleep aids and cough medicines. Drug abuse warning network, Steinman reported that female students misused OTC medicines more than males, and misuse was also higher amongst older white students and Native American youths, overthecounter.com. Support Center Support Center. This variation may be related to both geographical variation and methodological and study design factors. Consumer overthecounter.com and interests regarding non-prescription medications in Hungary. This review describes the current knowledge and understanding of OTC medicine abuse. The most recent study identified Nielsen et al, overthecounter.com. Over-the-counter laxatives and eating disorders: Night Nurse, Sudafed and Benylin also denied.

Direct harms included addiction and dependence to an opiate such as codeine Mattoo et al. Critical Care and Resuscitation. In many countries, OTC drugs are selected by a regulatory agency to ensure that they contain ingredients that are safe and effective when used without a physician 's care. Medicines implicated in OTC abuse OTC medicine abuse was identified in many countries and although implicated products varied, five key groups emerged: To estimate the amount of misuse of and dependence on nicotine gum in OTC setting. One mixed methods study Nielsen et al. Prevalence and correlates in a national sample. As Akram noted, however, this is unfortunate because it does not distinguish between misuse and abuse as separate problems, although some attempts to do this were identified in the literature: The term over-the-counter may be somewhat counterintuitive , since, in many countries, these drugs are often placed on shelves in self-service areas of stores, like any other packaged products. Frequency of OTC medicine misuse assessed with one question. Consumption and its discontents: Some participants expressed concern about side effects and abuse and misuse potential of medicines, including OTC medicines. In Wales, Pates et al. Retrieved 19 September If you don't understand the instructions, ask your pharmacist or health care provider. Survey self-reported use of OTC medicines and understanding of abuse potential amongst people who visit Hungarian pharmacies. Literature review findings A total of 53 publications were identified, including 25 empirical studies, 11 case reports, 11 reviews articles, 1 book chapter, 1 doctoral thesis, 1 parliamentary enquiry and 3 key publications from organisations.

A drug that is UAD can also be sold at drugstores, stores where no prescription can be filed and there is only a relatively small selection of popular drugs like painkillers and cough medicine. The sale of over-the-counter OTC medicines from pharmacies can help individuals self-manage symptoms. To study socio-demographic and clinical profiled of patients seeking treatment for codeine-based cough medicines in India. Postal questionnaire no details provided. Over time, often 3—6 years, drugs that prove themselves safe and appropriate as prescription medicines may be switched from prescription to OTC. Cross-sectional telephone survey, eliciting views on past and current use of nicotine gum in first study and questions based on dependency diagnostic criteria from DSM-IV and ICD Child-resistant packaging Drug interactions Generally recognized as safe and effective Generic drug Inverse benefit law Medical prescription Over-the-counter counseling Pharmacy Regulation of therapeutic goods. Doses at 10 times the recommended maximum were reported. Over-the-counter codeine use in Iceland: Over-the-Counter Medicines -- see more articles. Abuse of prescription and over-the-counter medications. Convenient sample of every third clinic patient having prescription filled. Background The mechanisms by which individuals can obtain medicines include not only their traditional prescribing by doctors, but also the ability to purchase medicines directly. This review of the literature has revealed a number of themes and data to inform understanding of OTC medicine abuse, However, what is perhaps most apparent is the extent of the omissions in the extant literature, particularly as they relate to the lack of:. Misuse of over-the-counter medicines from community pharmacies: Younger participants were more likely to report this. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Cross-sectional descriptive study using data captured for all treatment admissions to public addiction services. Major and Vincze A systematic review of quantitative and overthecounter.com research on the role and effectiveness of written information available to patients about individual medicines. Strategies ranged from pharmacy-based approaches reported by pharmacists overhhecounter.com their actual work, to suggested interventions such as increasing awareness of the problem, providing additional training, to allowing pharmacists to provide treatment withdrawal programmes.

Dobbin and Tobin reported on 77 cases reported through personal networks of one of the authors where harm and dependence to ibuprofen and codeine OTC products had occurred. Consensus reached in key areas such as improving staff training, access to information, and concerns about non-pharmacy and Internet supplies and commercial pressure. American Psychiatric Association; Observation of model developed using expert conference discussion local stakeholders consultation; records analysed from participating pharmacies trained in using model. Over-the-counter and prescription medicine misuse in Cape Town — Findings from specialist treatment centres. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. A substantial minority of the public appears willing to accept considerable risk to gain greater access to pharmaceuticals. Since the passage of the Illinois Methamphetamine Precursor Control Act and the subsequent federal Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act of , the purchase of pseudoephedrine is restricted. Pharmacy-only products are marked with [P]. Responses to suspected misuse involved limiting supply rather than advice. Methodologically, studies varied as to whether they focused on a particular product or sought to capture the range of products involved. Retrieved 3 February In relation to harms from other ingredients, two analgesic combination products — paracetamol and codeine co-codamol and ibuprofen and codeine — were considered problematic, with ibuprofen-containing medicine being particularly highlighted Chetty et al. Over the counter drugs can be highly addictive. Journal of Substance Use. This variation may be related to both geographical variation and methodological and study design factors. Over-the-counter laxatives and eating disorders: The most recent study identified Nielsen et al. Cross-sectional community survey using structured face-to-face interview. The American Journal of Psychiatry. This variation may be related to both geographical variation and methodological and study design factors. This appeared to be associated with variation in the availability of products, such as codeine-based analgesic or overthecounter.com medicines in several countries but not in iverthecounter.com United States, for example; specific trends, such as adolescent dextromethorphan abuse in the United States; and variation in regulation, such as availability of prescription medicines for purchase in some countries. Characteristics of primary prescription and OTC treatment admissions: Tinsley and Watkins reported on seven patients with dependence according to DSM-IV criteria for amphetamine-like abuse to ephedrine or pseudoephedrine and reported adverse social consequences in relation to overthecounter.com jobs, family-marital stresses, relapse into alcohol misuse, motor vehicle violations and accidents.